Think about the first time you heard about a woman being a doctor? Maybe you were 4 years old and your doctor mom came home with a stethoscope around her neck or maybe you were 12 and heard about your brother’s best friend’s sister getting into medical school. Regardless, women in your life and around the world have been training to become physicians for centuries. But how has medical education for women evolved over time? In this episode, we dive into the history of women as medical students in the U.S. Along the way, we cover what 19th century medical education even involved (we’re talkin curriculum, pre-reqs, cost and more), the rise and fall of all-female medical colleges, and what social conditions finally led to women say enough is enough. Something changed to make women the majority of medical students in our country today…join us as we try to figure out what!
Hegemonic Masculinity: the idea that men have a dominant place in society and express this dominance in a stereotypically masculine way i.e. men are chivalrous, don’t show emotion, don’t cry, are always strong, etc.
Hegemonic Masculinity is a way to explain men’s power over women and also men who represent marginalized masculinities such as gay or trans men.
How does intersectionality help us better understand what Anarcha, Betsey, Lucy and the other enslaved women experienced in these four years as experimental subjects? How can it help us understand their lives as enslaved women?
Some historians argue that these women did give Sims their consent to be experimented on because they were in so much pain and desperate for relief. What do you think? And where do you think these historians hit or missed the mark on understanding consent with these women?
What are some questions we can ask ourselves or conversations we can have to remind ourselves to have an intersectional feminist perspective in our daily lives?
Listen to the episode, discuss these questions with friends and family, let us know what you think!
- Disclaimer: We are focusing on the modern era (specifically from the 1800s to present), but we want to acknowledge that there are many ways to be a student and getting an MD has not been and is not the only way to become a physician.
- Even before Elizabeth Blackwell…
- Harriet Hunt, a homeopathic healer in the mid-1800s, applied to Harvard Medical School but was rejected because she was a woman
- She petitioned on the basis that Elizabeth Blackwell was a woman who was admitted to Geneva Medical College in NY state
- They admitted her but the male students petitioned against it and she was forced out
- But what were women missing out on?
- Curriculum: needed to be at least 21, take 2 years of classes and 3 years of preceptorship (rotations in the hospital as a student), no exams
- However these requirements are honestly quite iffy and became less strict over time
- Prerequisites: knowledge of Greek and Latin, graduating high school, some schools required that you finish college
- Cost: $90-120 in tuition with a few extra fees (in 2020, the total cost would be about $3500)
- Rise of Women in Medicine–late 1800s
- Increased number of female medical colleges like the Female Medical College of Philadelphia, New England Female Medical College and New York Infirmary for Women and Children
- By 1861, at least 200 women had gotten medical degrees and by 1866, so 5 years later, there were about 54,000 doctors in the US total, of which only 300 were women. And I think it’s also important to mention that of those 300 only 1 was Black.
- European medical schools took longer to take women but once they did, the women were protected by law and the number of female physicians in Europe surpassed the US by the early 1900s
- Coeducation begins in some medical schools, but causes women physician numbers to drop because many all female medical schools close
- Flexner Report: by Alfred Flexner, a prominent educator, believed female physician numbers declined because they either didn’t have a desire to be physicians or there was a lack of demand for them. He said nothing about how there were fewer opportunities for women.
- Golden Age of Medicine
- 1930s-1960s is the “Golden Age of Medicine”
- This is because there were just a bunch of major advancements in medicine, things like better surgical techniques, immunizations, drug discovery and better control of infectious disease
- From 1930 to 1970, so in 40 years, only about 14,000 women graduated from medical school compared to from 1970 to 1980, a 10 year span, when over 20,000 women graduated.
- Women take the medical field by storm
- During the 1970s, the second-wave feminist movement and rise of affirmative action led to some major social changes
- The Equal Employment Opportunity Act and Title IX of the Higher Education Amendments Act, both passed in 1972, were major factors in this change
- These opened up many opportunities for women’s education, including medical education. And actually, within two years of Title IX’s passage, women jumped to 22.4% of students entering medical school!
- By 1990, the number of female physicians in the US increased 310% from where it was in 1970 and according to 2019 data from the Association of American Medical Colleges, the majority (50.5%) of students enrolled in medical school are women
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Heiser, S. (2019, December 10). The Majority of U.S. Medical Students Are Women, New Data Show. Retrieved July 23, 2020, from https://www.aamc.org/news-insights/press-releases/majority-us-medical-students-are-women-new-data-show
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Paludi, Michele A. and Gertrude A. Streuernage, ed., Foundations for a Feminist Restructuring of the Academic Disciplines (New York: Harrington Park Press, 1990), 236.
Perry, S. (2017, January 23). How Title IX helped make women’s dreams of becoming doctors a reality. Retrieved July 23, 2020, from https://www.minnpost.com/second-opinion/2017/01/how-title-ix-helped-make-womens-dreams-becoming-doctors-reality/
Slawson, R. G. (2012). Medical Training in the United States Prior to the Civil War*. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 17(1), 11–27. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156587211427404
Sympathy & science : women physicians in American medicine … Morantz-Sanchez, Regina Markell.
Wynn R. Saints and Sinners: Women and the Practice of Medicine Throughout the Ages. JAMA. 2000;283(5):668–669. doi:10.1001/jama.283.5.668-JMS0202-4-1